It almost summer time!!! Here are some answers to some questions to consider...
One of the most cited theories of human development is that of Swiss biologist Jean Piaget. After reading about Piaget’s basic assumptions (p. 27-32) look with particular attention at the stage of child development you would like to teach. How might you accommodate those students who have not yet developed to this stage?
Speaking from the perspective of an art teacher, focusing in elementary art, I have witnessed on multiple occasions students who are behind the curve in Piaget's stages of childhood development. I have also seen many students who are well above the curve. If a child is 7 and still in the scribbling stage, they are behind. If a child is 5 and drawing recognizable shapes and forms, they are ahead of the curve. More often than not, students fall somewhere in between this. I feel as though in order to accommodate students who are behind the curve, I would embrace the scribbling and allow for self expression. Piagets theories do not relate to all cultures and ethnic backgrounds. For art, I do not see students falling behind his curve as a problem. A child born in South Africa might represent their family members with scribbles similar to tribal drawings whereas a child from North America might use a triangle for a girl and a square for a boy. This doesnt mean one is right or wrong. It just shows the differences in cultures and backgrounds. I dont think I would do any accommodations in my art classroom.
The other most cited theory of human development belongs to Russian developmentalist Lev Vygotsky. Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development leads us to expect greater diversity among our same-aged students than Piaget. Create a compare and contrast chart or a mind map that examines these two influential theorists’ ideas on cognitive development.
Theories in educational psychology promote the idea that language plays a critical role in cognitive development. Examine Table 2.2 (p. 51), paying particular attention to the age range that you are interested in teaching. Consider how you might incorporate or adapt the strategies presented for use with your own students.
As I mentioned above, I follow Vygotsky's theory more closely because I think it better embraces different cultures and ethnic backgrounds.
Consider your CSEL lesson sequence. Which metacognitive skills/abilities are involved as students gain facility/knowledge in this domain?
Create an activity or lesson component that explicitly teaches one or more metacognitive and one or more problem solving skills.
Here is an example lesson plan I created:
Lesson Plan: “Weaving”
Grade Level: 4th
Class Time: 2-45 minute periods
Unit Title and Unit Goals
Title: 3-D Construction, Weaving
Goals or Concepts: Students should gain an appreciation for cultural diversity and the art of weaving and fiber arts. The students should learn the proper techniques for created a weaving on a loom and the historical background of weaving. Students should experiment with different materials used in their weaving to gain an understand of what materials work best.
1.1 Manipulate a variety of tools and media in a safe and responsible manner.
2.6 Apply purpose in art.
3.1 Select and demonstrate subject matter, symbols, and ideas in one’s art.
Instructional Objective: After viewing a selection of weavings and weaving techniques by contemporary artist Susan Martin Maffei, the 4th grade student will discuss the use of weavings, then they will warp a cardboard loom and weave a small example, using different yarns and threads, and other materials that they are interested in experimenting with.
various kinds and colors of yarn
other materials students are interested in incorporating into their weaving
Examples of weavings done in the past and examples of different techniques.
Instructional Procedures and Design:
Motivation Strategies: The teacher will share a brief history of Weaving and Fiber arts and show examples of a few weavings that previous students have created. The teacher will explain the techniques used to design and construct the weavings. Students will hang weavings in hallway for parents to see at open house.
Weaving: Weaving is the textile art in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads, called the warp and the filling or weft (older woof), are interlaced with each other to form a fabric or cloth. The warp threads run lengthways of the piece of cloth, and the weft runs across from side to side.
Yarn: Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. ...
Loom: A loom is a device used to weave cloth. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary, but the basic function is the same.
What are some techniques to experiment with?
What color schemes do the students want to work with?
What are their weavings going to represent?
Classroom Strategies- Instructional Preparations/Suggestions/Safety:
1. The teacher should set up displays that contain examples of weavings and different techniques.
2. Review information on weavings and their historical content.
3. Prepare discussion questions about designing and constructing looms and weavings.
4. The teacher should list the instructions on designing and constructing the warping and weaving techniques.
5. The teacher should prepare a table to display art work.
6. The teacher should prepare a area in the classroom for the warping and gathering of yarn.
7. Prepare cardboard before students enter the room.
8. Have extra supplies for students to experiment with in their weavings.
9. Present motivational information and discussion of topic, using prepared questions as a guide.
10. Teacher will demonstrate designing and construction the weavings.
11. Teacher will make sure everyone has constructed their weaves correctly.
12. Teacher will encourage students to use a variety of materials to communicate their ideas through their weavings.
13. Teacher will assist students in the construction of the weavings.
Learner Involvement-Student Activities/Procedures
1. Students will view the weavings on display.
2. Students will listen to the teacher’s presentation and participate in class discussion (guided by the teacher prepared discussion questions) on the history of weavings and fiber arts.
3. Students will attentively listen to the teacher as he/she demonstrates how to create their own weaving.
4. Students will look over the list of progressive steps on how to create their own weaving and ask questions when they arise.
5. Students will warp their cardboard looms to prepare for weaving.
6. Students will choose yarn and materials that they want to use in their weaving.
7. Students will place cardboard strips into weavings to create a base for weavings.
8. Students will begin weaving, including the yarns and materials that they chose to use.
9. Students will continue to work, changing colors and creating designs in their weavings.
10. Students will clean up all yarn scrapes.
11. Students will tie off ends and hang in hallway for display.
Practice and Review: Teacher will rotate to tables or desks, reviewing concepts of weavings and giving assistance when necessary.
Learning Environment: (classroom set up/class layout of supplies, etc): Students will work at own seats for motivation discussion and work on weavings. For demonstration students will come up to a table that the teacher has prepared for instructions.
1. Students will clean up all yarn scrapes around their tables.
2. Teacher will make tables and floors are clean before leaving the classroom.
Ending Comments- Address conceptual issues of weavings and their history. Note final concepts behind color choices and techniques used.
Special Needs Considerations- May have already prepared and warped looms for specialty needs students.
Addressing Diversity- Have students research other fiber arts and bring in examples done at home.
Formal- Use rubric to identify use of concept, materials, and craftsmanship in final weavings.
Informal- With the class, orally review key concepts from goals and objectives. Display work for parent-teacher conferences.
Re-teaching: Most would occur in-process, troubleshooting as problems arise.
Consider your CSEL lesson topic. How might you enhance motivation and affect in your students using the theories of motivation?
Which theories of motivation are most helpful and instructive for you?
I think in order to motivate students it is important that the teacher make the project relatable. I have created and tested many lesson plans with students, some successful, others not so much, and I have noticed that the most successful projects always allow for the most individuality. Students are more likely to try harder and dedicate more time when it is something that they find interesting. I would enhance motivation by allowing self directed projects where students can choose what they want as their subject or media, as long as it falls within the project guidelines.
How will you create a learning environment that is conducive to learning?
Learning environments that are most conducive to learning are comfortable, encouraging, and calm. As an art teacher, I want my classroom to be a place where students feel comfortable and are encouraged to relax and share their art in a positive environment.
I went on a field trip to the Barbs talk and it was the most interesting lecture of my life. Barbs words (which she typed) were few and far between but quite poignant. Her first words were "Autism is not my prison, its my prism". She sees autism as an opening- she works to change peoples perception of people with disabilities and she does an incredible job. I have been reading her blog and she is inspirational. Here is her blog: http://muleandmuseproductions.com/author/barb/
Read it! It is fascinating and eye opening and will erase any stereotypes you could ever imagine.